Robert Michael: scholar of antisemitism

Robert Michael

Robert Michael (1936-2010) was a Professor Emeritus of European History at the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. He was most noted for his contributions to history and the theological and historical roots of antisemitism.

Works

Books

A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church (2008), Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 0230603882

Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust (2006) Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403974721

A Concise History of American Antisemitism: (2005). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0742543137

Dictionary of Antisemitism: From the Earliest Times to the Present (2007). Greenwood Press. ISBN 0810858622

Nazi Deutsch/Nazi German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich [coauthor] (2002) Greenwood Press ISBN 031332106X

The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Picture [coauthor] (1998) Publications International, Ltd. ISBN 0765759845

The Holocaust: A Chronology and Documentary (1998) Jason Aronson Publishers ISBN 0765759845

The Houghton -Mifflin Guide to the Internet for History (1996) Houghton-Mifflin  ISBN 0395814545

Fatal Image (1992) Ginn Press ISBN 05365813X

Fatal Vision: The History of Christian Theological anti-Semitism and the nature of the Holocaust (1990) Ginn Press ISBN 0536578893

The Radicals and Nazi Germany (1982) University Press of America ISBN 0819124222

Articles

Antisemitism and the Church Fathers chapter in Marvin Perry and Frederick Schweitzer’s’ Jewish-Christian Encounters Through the Centuries: Symbiosis, Prejudice, Holocaust, Dialogue (1994) ISBN 0820420824

Antisemitism: Did the Holocaust have its origins in the anti-Semitism of the nineteenth century?  History in Dispute, Vol. 11: The Holocaust (2002) ISBN 9781558624559

“Antisemitism: Did the Holocaust have its origins in the antisemitism of the nineteenth century?” in History in Dispute, Vol. 11: The Holocaust, ed. Tandy McConnell. (Gale Publishing, 2002)”

“Sub Species Aeternitatis: Teaching After Teaching,” Chronicle of Higher Education (November 2002)

“Kishinev, 1903-2003,” Menorah Review (Fall 2002)

“Peter Bertocci,” Boston University College of Arts and Sciences (Fall 2002)

“Emeritus,” Chronicle of Higher Education Review (Summer 2002)

“The Present and Future of the Internet for Scholars,” On Campus (1997)

“Antisemitism and the Church Fathers,” chapter in Marvin Perry and Frederick Schweitzer, Jewish-Christian Encounters Through the Centuries: Symbiosis, Prejudice, Holocaust, Dialogue (New York 1995).

“Religious Antisemitism and American Immigration Policy During the Holocaust,” Australian Journal of Jewish Studies vol. 7, no. 1 (1993), pp. 9-40.

“Christian Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, and the Holocaust” (Part II), Menorah Review (Winter 1993-1994), pp. 2-5.

“Christian Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, and the Holocaust” (Part I), Menorah Review (Fall 1993)

“Facts and Fallacies About Jewish-Christian Relations,” Menorah Review (Fall 1992)

“In the Lifeboat Together: American Protestants and Jews,” Menorah Review (Virginia Commonwealth University)

“Christian Theological Antisemitism: Jewish Values Turned Upside-Down,” Menorah Review (Spring 1992), pp. 3-5.

“Christian Antisemitism and Richard Wagner: A Reexamination,” Patterns of Prejudice (December 1991-January 1992).

“Puzzling Over Evil,” Judaica Book News (Fall/Winter 1990-1), pp. 29-30, 32.

“Dreyfus and French Catholicism,” Menorah Review, Virginia Commonwealth University (Summer 1990), pp. 3-5.

“Theologia Gloriae and Civilt Cattolica’s Attitudes Toward the Jews of the Holocaust,” Encounter: Creative Theological Scholarship, Vol. 50, No. 2, Spring, 1989, pp. 151-66.

“Theological Myth, German Antisemitism, and the Holocaust: The Case of Martin Niemoeller,” reprinted in Michael Marrus, ed., The Nazi Holocaust (Westport, CT. and London: Meckler 1988).

“Review of Exile in the Fatherland: Martin Niemoeller’s Letters,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1988), pp. 229-31.

“The Persistence of Theologia Gloriae in Modern Antisemitism: Voltaire, Wagner, Hitler,” Remembering for the Future: Jews and Christians During and After the Holocaust (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988), Vol. 1, pp. 720-35.

“Theological Myth, German Antisemitism, and the Holocaust: The Case of Martin Niemoeller,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1987), pp. 105-22.

“Luther, Luther Scholars, and the Jews,” Encounter (Fall 1985), pp. 339-56.

“The Holocaust in Night and Fog,” Cineaste (December 1984), pp. 36-7.

“The Holocaust in Historical, Moral, and Theological Perspective,” Encounter: Creative Theological Scholarship (Summer 1984), pp. 259-70.

“The Foreign Policies of the Radical Party, 1933-1939,” Third Republic/Troisieme Republique (Spring 1984), pp. 1-92.

“Confronting and Transcending the Holocaust: Is It Possible?” Judaica Book News (Fall 1982), pp. 23-8.

Other Publications

“Surviving the Holocaust” and “Martyrdom & Resistance as a Guide to History of the Holocaust,” in Harvey Rosenfeld and Eli Zborowski, eds., A Legacy Recorded (New York 1994), pp. 86-89, 146-149.

“Good and Evil,” Liberal Judaism (electronic publication), 1 Jan. 94.

“Review of Memory Offended,” Martyrdom and Resistance (1993), pp. 2, 4.

“America’s, Britain’s Failure to Rescue Jews,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1991), pp. 7, 15.

“State Department Said No to Rescue . . . But Only When It Concerned Jews,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1991), pp. 3, 12.

“American Literary Antisemitism: Twentieth Century,” in Midstream (August-September 1991), pp. 27-29.

“The Miracle of Jewish Resistance,” Martyrdom and Resistance (March-April 1989), pp. 7, 12.

“The Jews in Medieval Art,” New England Historical Association Bulletin (Fall 1988)

“British Government Attitudes Toward Jewish Immigration During the Holocaust,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1987)

“The Jew as Antihero: Christian Images of the Jew in Medieval Art,” Proceedings of the Seventh Medieval Forum (1986)

“Theological Myth, Christian Antisemitism, and The Merchant of Venice,” Martyrdom and Resistance (January-February 1986)

“America and the Holocaust,” Midstream (February 1985)

“American Antisemitism and the Holocaust,” The South African Jewish Spectator Annual (Fall 1984)

“Theological Myth, Christian Antisemitism, and the Holocaust” Midstream (March 1984)

“German and American Antisemitism During the Holocaust: A Theological Interpretation,” The Jewish Review (U.K.) (January 1984)

“The Holocaust: Some Reflections,” National Catholic Reporter (January 1984)

“Surviving the Holocaust: Some Reflections,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1983)

“Hostile Myths, German Christian Antisemitism,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1983)

“Parallels Between Medieval and Modern Antisemitic Myths,” Proceedings of the Fourth Medieval Forum (1983)

“The Theological Causes of the Holocaust,” Martyrdom and Resistance (May-June 1982)

“The Terrible Flaw of Night and Fog,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1981

Reviews

Egal Feldman, Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America,” Martyrdom and Resistance (May/June 1991), 2-3.

Michael Dobkowski and Isidor Wallimann, eds., Radical Perspectives on the Rise of Fascism in Germany, 1919-1945,” Revue Etudes Internationales (Universite Laval) (December 1990), 885-87.

Collection de Droit International, le Proces de Nuremberg:Consequences et Actualisation, Revue Etudes Internationales (May 1990).

Robert Herzstein, Roosevelt & Hitler:Prelude to War, Martyrdom and Resistance (April-May 1990)

Gottfried-Karl Kindermann, Hitler’s Defeat in Austria, 1933-1934: Europe’s First Containment of Nazi Expansionism,” Revue Etudes Internationales (December 1989), Vol. 20, no. 4,   914-16.

“A Bibliography of Jewish-Christian Relations,” Judaica Book News (Fall 1989).

Charles Maier, The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity,” Shofar: Journal of Jewish Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, Spring 1989, Purdue University Jewish Studies pp.101-4.

Arno Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Tremble, The International Society for Yad Vashem: Martyrdom and Resistance (May-June 1989), 2, 14.

Stanislav J. Kirschbaum and Anne C. R. Roman, eds., Reflections on Slovak History,” Revue Etudes Internationales (Universite Laval), Vol. 19, No. 4 (December 1988), pp. 744-6.

Positions

Contributing Editor Menorah Review 1989-2009

VCU Center for Judaic Studies

External links

University Of Massachusetts/Dartmouth

Historians of Europe

Scholars of antisemitism

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Search results: “Hitler” Robert Michael” Wikipedia

  • Martin Luther and antisemitism
    but Robert Michael writes that his execution was for attempting to Robert Waite , in his psychohistory of Hitler and Nazi Germany, devoted
    66 KB (10,100 words) – 03:12, 30 August 2010
  • On the Jews and Their Lies
    Bibliography : Hitler’s Willing Executioners. Vintage, 1997. On the Jews and Their Lies, cited in Robert Michael . ” “Luther, Luther Scholars
    20 KB (2,895 words) – 03:04, 30 August 2010
  • Martin Niemöller
    and initially a supporter of Adolf Hitler he became one of the anti-Judaism . Holocaust scholar Robert Michael notes that Niemöller’s
    21 KB (2,839 words) – 13:57, 27 August 2010
  • The Holocaust
    Zionist Action Committee that Hitler’s rise to power was an ” Robert Michael, Karin Doerr, Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi-German: An English Lexicon
    197 KB (28,013 words) – 08:41, 30 August 2010
  • The Eternal Jew
    figures who had managed to earn Adolf Hitler ‘s wrath, such as Albert Robert Michael, Karin Doerr, Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi-German: An English
    16 KB (2,109 words) – 20:26, 12 August 2010
  • Martin Luther
    “for all time In Robert Michael’s view, Luther’s words “We are at (part%202).ppt Hitler and the Holocaust, Christian Anti-Semitism”, (NP:
    102 KB (15,000 words) – 22:42, 30 August 2010
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Search results: “concentration camp” “Robert Michael” Wikipedia

  • The Holocaust (section Concentration and labor camps (1933–1945))
    30,000 were sent to concentration camps , including Dachau , Robert Michael, Karin Doerr, Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi-German: An English Lexicon of
    197 KB (28,013 words) – 08:41, 30 August 2010
  • Martin Niemöller
    Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration camp s from 1937 to 1945 He Judaism . Holocaust scholar Robert Michael notes that Niemöller’s
    21 KB (2,839 words) – 13:57, 27 August 2010
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Search results: “Robert Michael” “Judaism” Wikipedia

  • General Order No. 11 (1862)
    Judaism-related controversies Category:Antisemitism in the United States Robert Michael, A Concise History Of American Antisemitism, p.
    15 KB (2,342 words) – 10:05, 30 August 2010
  • The Holocaust
    “Nazi anti-Judaism was the work of godless, anti-Christian criminals. Robert Michael, Karin Doerr, Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi-German: An English
    197 KB (28,013 words) – 08:41, 30 August 2010
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Search results: “Das Reich” “Robert Michael” cited #1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Reich_%28newspaper%29

Das Reich (newspaper)

History

‘’Das Reich’’ was mainly the creation of Rudolf Sparing, Rolf Rienhardt and Max Amann.[3]

Goebbels was not involved in the publication, aside from contributing a weekly editorial.[4]

Contents

The paper contained news reports, essays on various subjects, book reviews, and an editorial written by Goebbels.[5] Some of the content was written by foreign authors.[6] With the exception of Goebbels’ editorial, Das Reich did not share the tone of other Nazi publications.[7]

Circulation

It was mainly circulated outside Germany, with translated editions appearing in about twenty-five languages. It was an immediate success, attracting over one million readers in the first year, with its circulation rising by another half a million in 1942-1943.[8]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Michael & Doerr, (2002) Nazi-Deutsch / Nazi-German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich.
  2. ^ Welch, The Third Reich, p. 126.
  3. ^ Hale, The Captive Press, p. 278.
  4. ^ Hale, The Captive Press, p. 278.
  5. ^ Shapiro, Why Didn’t the Press Shout?, p. 312.
  6. ^ Shapiro, Why Didn’t the Press Shout?, p. 313.
  7. ^ Hale, The Captive Press, p. 278.
  8. ^ Hale, The Captive Press, p. 278.
  • Robert Michael and Karin Doerr. Nazi-Deutsch / Nazi-German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich. Greenwood. 2002.
  • Hale, Oron J., The Captive Press in the Third Reich (Princeton, 1964)
  • Welch, David, The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda (London, 1993)
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Robert Michael’s Full Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Robert Michael was Professor Emeritus of European History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, where he taught the Holocaust for nearly thirty years. A Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Boston University in Philosophy, he published poetry and more than 50 articles and eleven books on the Holocaust and the History of Antisemitism.

Professor Michael has also taught at Central European University in Budapest, Inter-American University in Puerto Rico, and given lectures at the University of Vienna and at the Ateneo Veneto and University of Venice. He was a founder and co-editor of the scholarly email list H-ANTISEMITISM and formerly editor of H-HOLOCAUST and H-W-CIV. He offered the world’s first distance-education course on the Holocaust in 1994 and this year has been invited to teach the same at American Military University.

Dr. Robert Michael’s Full Curriculum Vitae

Adjunct Professor, Middle Tennessee State University, 2007-2008

Adjunct Professor, Graduate Faculty, Florida Gulf Coast University, 2005

Adjunct Professor, Ringling College of Art & Design, 2005

Adjunct Professor, University of South Florida, Sarasota, 2005

Professor Emeritus of European History, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2001

University of Venice, Visiting Lecturer, 2000

University of Vienna, Visiting Lecturer, 1996

Central European University, Budapest, Visiting Professor, 1996

Former editor, Humanities Network Scholarly Email Lists: H-ANTISEMITISM, H-W-CIVILIZATION, H-HOLOCAUST

First professor to offer The Holocaust as a cyber-ed (Distance Learning) course. See Mary Lord’s story, “Getting a Degree by Email,” U.S. News & World Report (October 30, 1995).

Menorah Review, Contributing Editor, 1989-2010

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Professor of European History, 1971-2001

University of Connecticut, PhD. 1972, European History

Inter American University, Associate Professor, 1970-1

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1970

University of Connecticut, M.A. 1968, European History (N.D.E.A. Fellow)

Textbook Editor, 1962-66, Thomas Yoseloff-A.S. Barnes-University of Pennsylvania Press, Hawthorne Books-Prentice-Hall, Bobbs-Merrill, World (New York City)

Columbia University, 1961-2, Philosophy

U.S. Army, 1958-61

Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1958 (McGeorge Bundy Chaired my Election Committee)

Boston University, A.B. 1958, Degree with Distinction in Philosophy, Magna cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa

Books

A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church

Go to "A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church" page
A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church- from the
Crucifixion to Vatican II (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, April 2008)
*”Antisemitism in American Literature,” in Stephen Norwood and Eunice
Pollack, eds., Encyclopedia of American Jewish History (Santa Barbara:
ABC-CLIO 2007) Cover photo taken by Robert Michael at the Père Lachaise
Cemetery in Paris.

Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust  2006

This cover represents Shmuel, the boy of the Warsaw Ghetto as represented by the surrealist artist of the Holocaust, Samuel Bak.

HolyHatredCover.jpg hosted for free by ImageShack

A Concise History of American Antisemitism (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 2005)

Front Cover

Antisemitism: Did the Holocaust have its origins in the antisemitism of the nineteenth century??” in Tandy McConnell, ed., History in Dispute, Vol. 11: The Holocaust (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2002)

Dictionary of Antisemitism (New York: Greenwood Press, 2005) [co-author]

Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the The Third Reich (New York: Greenwood Press, 2001) [co-author]

The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Picture(Chicago: Publications International, 1999) [co-author]

The Holocaust Chronicle The Holocaust Chronicle

The Holocaust: A Chronology and Documentary (New York: Jason Aronson Publishers, 1998)

The Houghton-Mifflin Guide to the Internet for History (Boston:Houghton-Mifflin, 1996)

*”Antisemitism and the Church Fathers,” in Marvin Perry and Frederick Schweitzer, Jewish-Christian Encounters Through the Centuries: Symbiosis, Prejudice, Holocaust, Dialogue (New York: Peter Lang, 1994)

Fatal Image (Needham Heights, MA: Ginn Press, 1992)

Fatal Vision (Needham Heights, MA: Ginn Press, 1990)

The Radicals and Nazi Germany
(Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982)

cited in Crisis and Renewal in France 1918-1962  Martin S. Alexander

cited in France and German in an Age of Crisis 1900-1960  Charles Bloch, Haim Shamir

Poetry

“Apostasy,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies (Fall 1982)

“God Wrestling,” Menorah Review (Winter 2002)

“I don’t want to die before I die,” Menorah Review (Spring 2002)

“Easter, 1903,” Menorah Review (Winter 2003)

Principal academic papers since 1990

“Nazi-Deutsch,” Deutsches Haus New York University (October 2002)

“Antisemitisms,” Keynote Speaker at Teaching About the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights: A Seminar for Teachers in Public and Private Schools and In Religious Congregations (Sunday, March 24, 2002)

“Nazis, Nazi-Deutsch, and the Holocaust,” Ateneo Veneto (Venice) (November 2001)

“Nazi-Deutsch,” University of Venice (November 2001)

“Teaching the Holocaust in Cybereducation: A Model for Teaching the History of Western Civilization,” New England Historical Association (October 1997)

“The Nature of Historical Research on the Internet, Present and Future,” American Historical Association (January 1997)

“The Continuity of Papal Jewish Policy,” Medieval Forum, Plymouth State College (April 1996)

“The Internet and History,” Northeastern University, 1995

“Black-Jewish Relations,” Colloquium on Race,” University of Massachusetts Boston, September 1995

“Medieval Historians and the Internet,” Medieval Forum, Plymouth State College, April 1994

“Crusaders and Jews During the First and Second Crusade,” Medieval Forum, Plymouth State College, April 1992

Major Articles

“Antisemitism: Did the Holocaust have its origins in the antisemitism of the nineteenth century?” in History in Dispute, Vol. 11: The Holocaust, ed. Tandy McConnell. (Gale Publishing, 2002)”

“Sub Spieces Aeternitatis: Teaching After Teaching,” Chronicle of Higher Education (November 2002)

“Kishinev, 1903-2003,” Menorah Review (Fall 2002)

Peter Bertocci,” Boston University College of Arts and Sciences (Fall 2002)

“Emeritus,” Chronicle of Higher Education Review (Summer 2002)

“The Present and Future of the Internet for Scholars,” On Campus (1997)

“Antisemitism and the Church Fathers,” chapter in Marvin Perry and Frederick Schweitzer, Jewish-Christian Encounters Through the Centuries: Symbiosis, Prejudice, Holocaust, Dialogue (New York 1995).

“Religious Antisemitism and American Immigration Policy During the Holocaust,” Australian Journal of Jewish Studies vol. 7, no. 1 (1993), pp. 9-40.

“Christian Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, and the Holocaust” (Part II), Menorah Review (Winter 1993-1994), pp. 2-5.

“Christian Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, and the Holocaust” (Part I), Menorah Review (Fall 1993)

“Facts and Fallacies About Jewish-Christian Relations,” Menorah Review (Fall 1992)

“In the Lifeboat Together: American Protestants and Jews,” Menorah Review (Virginia Commonwealth University)

“Christian Theological Antisemitism: Jewish Values Turned Upside-Down,” Menorah Review (Spring 1992), pp. 3-5.

“Christian Antisemitism and Richard Wagner: A Reexamination,” Patterns of Prejudice (December 1991-January 1992).

“Puzzling Over Evil,” Judaica Book News (Fall/Winter 1990-1), pp. 29-30, 32.

“Dreyfus and French Catholicism,” Menorah Review, Virginia Commonwealth University (Summer 1990), pp. 3-5.

“Theologia Gloriae and Civilt Cattolica’s Attitudes Toward the Jews of the Holocaust,” Encounter: Creative Theological Scholarship, Vol. 50, No. 2, Spring, 1989, pp. 151-66.

“Theological Myth, German Antisemitism, and the Holocaust: The Case of Martin Niemoeller,” reprinted in Michael Marrus, ed., The Nazi Holocaust (Westport, CT. and London: Meckler 1988).

“Review of Exile in the Fatherland: Martin Niemoeller’s Letters,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1988), pp. 229-31.

“The Persistence of Theologia Gloriae in Modern Antisemitism: Voltaire, Wagner, Hitler,” Remembering for the Future: Jews and Christians During and After the Holocaust (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988), Vol. 1, pp. 720-35.

“Theological Myth, German Antisemitism, and the Holocaust: The Case of Martin Niemoeller,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1987), pp. 105-22.

“Luther, Luther Scholars, and the Jews,” Encounter (Fall 1985), pp. 339-56.

“The Holocaust in Night and Fog,” Cineaste (December 1984), pp. 36-7.

“The Holocaust in Historical, Moral, and Theological Perspective,” Encounter: Creative Theological Scholarship (Summer 1984), pp. 259-70.

“The Foreign Policies of the Radical Party, 1933-1939,” Third Republic/Troisieme Republique (Spring 1984), pp. 1-92.

“Confronting and Transcending the Holocaust: Is It Possible?” Judaica Book News (Fall 1982), pp. 23-8.

Other Publications

“The History of the Martial Arts: From Classical Greece, Through Asia, To the United States,” Black Belt Magazine (Summer 1996).

“Surviving the Holocaust” and “Martyrdom & Resistance as a Guide to History of the Holocaust,” in Harvey Rosenfeld and Eli Zborowski, eds., A Legacy Recorded (New York 1994), pp. 86-89, 146-149.

“Good and Evil,” Liberal Judaism (electronic publication), 1 Jan. 94.

“Review of Memory Offended,” Martyrdom and Resistance (1993), pp. 2, 4.

“What the Martial Arts Mean to America,” Karate International (August 1992), pp. 8-10.

“America’s, Britain’s Failure to Rescue Jews,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1991), pp. 7, 15.

“State Department Said No to Rescue . . . But Only When It Concerned Jews,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1991), pp. 3, 12.

“American Literary Antisemitism: Twentieth Century,” in Midstream (August-September 1991), pp. 27-29.

“Review of Egal Feldman, Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America,” Martyrdom and Resistance (May/June 1991), pp. 2-3.

“Review of Michael Dobkowski and Isidor Wallimann, eds., Radical Perspectives on the Rise of Fascism in Germany, 1919-1945,” R�ue Etudes Internationales (Universite Laval) (December 1990), pp. 885-87.

“Review of Collection de Droit International, le Proces de Nuremberg:Consequences et Actualisation, Revue Etudes Internationales (May 1990).

“Review of Robert Herzstein, Roosevelt & Hitler:Prelude to War, Martyrdom and Resistance (April-May 1990)

“Review of Gottfried-Karl Kindermann, Hitler’s Defeat in Austria, 1933-1934: Europe’s First Containment of Nazi Expansionism,” Revue Etudes Internationales (December 1989), Vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 914-16.

“Review of A Bibliography of Jewish-Christian Relations,” Judaica Book News (Fall 1989).

“Review of Charles Maier, The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity,” Shofar: Journal of Jewish Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, Spring 1989, pp. 101-4.

“Review of Arno Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Tremble, The International Society for Yad Vashem: Martyrdom and Resistance (May-June 1989), pp. 2, 14.

“The Miracle of Jewish Resistance,” Martyrdom and Resistance (March-April 1989), pp. 7, 12.

“Review of Stanislav J. Kirschbaum and Anne C. R. Roman, eds., Reflections on Slovak History,” Revue Etudes Internationales (Universite Laval), Vol. 19, No. 4 (December 1988), pp. 744-6.

“The Jews in Medieval Art,” New England Historical Association Bulletin (Fall 1988)

“British Government Attitudes Toward Jewish Immigration During the Holocaust,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1987)

“The Jew as Antihero: Christian Images of the Jew in Medieval Art,” Proceedings of the Seventh Medieval Forum (1986)

“Theological Myth, Christian Antisemitism, and The Merchant of Venice,” Martyrdom and Resistance (January-February 1986)

“America and the Holocaust,” Midstream (February 1985)

“American Antisemitism and the Holocaust,” The South African Jewish Spectator Annual (Fall 1984)

“Theological Myth, Christian Antisemitism, and the Holocaust” Midstream (March 1984)

“German and American Antisemitism During the Holocaust: A Theological Interpretation,” The Jewish Review (U.K.) (January 1984)

“The Holocaust: Some Reflections,” National Catholic Reporter (January 1984)

“Surviving the Holocaust: Some Reflections,” Martyrdom and Resistance (November-December 1983)

“Hostile Myths, German Christian Antisemitism,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1983)

“Parallels Between Medieval and Modern Antisemitic Myths,” Proceedings of the Fourth Medieval Forum (1983)

“The Theological Causes of the Holocaust,” Martyrdom and Resistance (May-June 1982)

“The Terrible Flaw of Night and Fog,” Martyrdom and Resistance (September-October 1981)

Courses Taught at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

History of Germany

French Revolution and Napoleon

Modern France

History of Western Civilization I & II

History of Western Civilization I & II through Films of Historical Fiction

War and Diplomacy

The Holocaust

Seminar in the History of Christian-Jewish Relations

Ethical Issues of Antisemitism (General Education/Honors course)

Teaching History/Teaching the Holocaust (graduate course)

The Holocaust [cybered]

Electronic Professional Activities

Editor at H-Net, Humanities Electronic Network, a stable of more than 70 electronic scholarly lists in the Humanities, created at the University of Illinois Chicago

Editorial positions:

Co-Editor HOLOCAUS (Holocaust)

Founder and Co-Editor H-ANTIS (Scholarly History of Antisemitism)

Co-Editor, H-W-CIV (History of Western Civilization)

Former Co-Editor newsgroup SOC.CULTURE.JEWISH.HOLOCAUST

Founder, UMASSD INTERNET USERS GROUP

Founder, UMASSD.INTERNAUTS Newsgroup

Electronic Teaching Offered:

Internet Course on the Holocaust sponsored by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Division of Continuing Education (Fall 1995)

Workshop for Public School Teachers sponsored by University of Massachusetts Dartmouth College of Arts and Sciences (Spring Semester 1995)

Workshop for Northeastern University Faculty (Spring 1995)

Workshop on the Internet sponsored by University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Academic Computing Service (Summer 1995)

Workshop for Medieval Historians sponsored by Plymouth State College (April 1994 and April 1995)

Contributor to:

H-TEACH (Washington University and University of Chicago)

HOLOCAUS (University of Illinois Chicago)

BRITAIN & THE JEWS (Roger Williams College)

H-FILM (University of Houston)

IATH-L (Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities; University of Virginia)

ORB (Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, University of Kansas)

ECCHST-L (History of Christianity)

Reader:

SOPHIA (Ancient Philosophy, University of Liverpool)

THUCIDIDES (Temple University)

MDVLPHIL (Medieval Philosophy and Political Science, Louisiana State University)

H-EDIT (Prof. Richard Jensen, U. of Illinois, Chicago)

ECHO (European Commission Host Organization)

IOUDAIOS (First-Century Judaism, Tel Aviv University)

DEREMI-L (medieval warfare, University of Kansas)

WWII-L (World War 2)

CONTENTS (Religious Studies, University of Ottawa)

GUTNBERG (electronic publication of historical and literary texts)

Electronic Seminars:

ST. AUGUSTINE (Prof. James O’Donnell, University of Pennsylvania, Spring 1994);

RACISM (run by Prof. Gary Klass, Illinois State University, Spring 1994)

Subject-Matter Expert in Jewish History (Electronic-Emissary Project, University of Texas at Austin & Texas Center the Educational Technology)

Praise for Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust

“A praiseworthy achievement—a model of its kind.”—Paul R. Bartrop, Honorary Research Fellow, The Faculty of Arts, Deakin University, and Head of History, Bialik College

Holy Hatred is a masterful, beautifully written study of how Christianity and the churches shaped and sustained a lethal antisemitism for almost two millennia. Future studies of the Holocaust or of antisemitism will have to address Michael’s work.”—Eunice G. Pollack, University of North Texas

“Following in the footsteps of Poliakov and Flannery, this book offers a powerful description of Christianity’s intimate involvement with Judeophobia and anti-Semitism from the gospels forward.”—Peter J. Haas, Abba Hillel Silver Professor of Jewish Studies, Chair, Department of Religious Studies, and Director, The Samuel Rosenthal Center for Judaic Studies, Case Western Reserve University

“If anyone still remains ignorant of the Christian origins of anti-Semitism—ancient and modern—and its contribution to the Holocaust, this book will remedy that bliss: clearly, and in comprehensive detail.”—Richard Elliott Sherwin, Professor, Bar-Ilan University

http://us.macmillan.com/holyhatred

HISTORY OF CATHOLIC ANTISEMITISMDark Side of the Church
DARK SIDE OF THE CHURCH
Monday, March 17, 2008 – My new book just came out this month, published in New York by Palgrave-Macmillan. Below I submit the table of contents,dedication, preface, and intro for your consideration.
THE DARK SIDE OF THE CHURCH: A HISTORY OF CATHOLIC ANTISEMITISM FROM THE CRUCIFIXION TO VATICAN II
By
Robert Michael
Professor Emeritus of European History
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Graduate Faculty, Florida Gulf Coast University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Dedication
Preface
Introduction: The Catholic Church and the Jews
1: Pagans and Early Catholics
2: Value Inversion and Vilification
3. Roman Law
4. Medieval Deterioration
5. Crusades and Defamations
6. Papal Policy
7. Germany
8. France
9. Poland
10. Papal Policy During the Holocaust
Postscript: Catholic Racism
DEDICATION
I dedicate this book to the patience and inspiration of my wife, Susan, and my children, Stephanie, Andrew, and Carolyn.
To my parents, Gilbert E. Friedberg and Jeanne Greene Friedberg.
To my brother, Stephen H. Friedberg. When Steve and I were children, our second mother was Ruth Mary Hubbard Miller, a Roman Catholic. This loving person, married to a Protestant, expressed no prejudice toward us or our Jewish family. Not until researching the earliest origins of the Holocaust did I discover the Church Fathers, and from there the whole sorry history of Catholic antisemitism.
This book is also dedicated to Ruth Mary Hubbard Miller.
Finally, I want to dedicate my work to my late friend, the Reverend Father Edward Flannery, a human exemplar of the kind of Catholic who followed the tradition of authentic love for Jews his whole life long.
PREFACE
The search for truth is imperative if Catholics and Jews are to be reconciled. This search requires us to remember and not forget the bitterest facts. For without memory, past evils will replicate themselves in new forms. Without memory, we cannot complete a healing process that requires us to understand the dark side of things we cherish. Without memory, there can be no solid foundation for a compassionate and productive relationship between Catholics and Jews, in which human similarities override human differences. As the Ba’al Shem Tov has indicated, without memory there can be no redemption.
INTRODUCTION: THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE JEWS:
“In the last analysis, antisemitism is not only an isue of physical life and death for the Jews, it is also a spiritual problem for Christians.”
Jacques Maritain
CATHOLIC ANTISEMITISM
It is almost impossible to find examples of antisemitism that are exclusively racial, economic, or political, and free of religious configuration. The infamous, secular, and “racial” Nuremberg Laws of 1935, for example, employed the religious affiliation of Jews in order to identify them for discrimination. What else could they do? There is no such thing as race and so there was no authentic scientific way to detect the racial nature of a Jew.  So the Nazis had to resort to using birth and baptismal records (seven of them, for 4 grandparents, 2 parents, the person him/herself) to establish who was a Jew, who was not.
Many lay Catholics and widely respected Catholic writers still hesitate to come to grips with the two millennia of Catholic antisemitism that prepared Catholics not only to perceive Jews in a negative way, but also primed them to accept the anti-Jewish aspects of secular ideas—and to take action on them. Catholic, as distinguished from Orthodox and Protestant, refers to those Christians in communion with the Holy See of Rome, with the whole ecclesiastical structure of the Church, with the popes at the top of an extensive episcopal hierarchy.  “Catholic antisemitism” refers to the anti-Jewish elements in the theology of the Church Fathers, both Latin and Greek, the pronouncements and actions of the papacy and Catholic orders, the teachings and actions of clerics, the content of canon law, the laws and behaviors of secular Catholic princes, as well as the works and behaviors of secular Catholic faithful, including writers and artists. This definition does not deny that some Catholics have thought positively of, and acted benificently toward, Jews–especially since Nostra Aetate in 1965 offered official sanction to such humane and philosemitic behaviors. Nor does it deny that official Church doctrine, based on St. Augustine, regarded the Jews as suffering witnesses, not to be murdered–though this restriction was violated by Catholics time and again. But until 1965, the Catholic Church’s “dark side” in regard to the Jews, Jewishness, and Judaism was predominant.
According to some authors, the early Church’s hostility to Jews grew out of a Gentile antisemitism that converted pagans carried into the Church.  These writers take into account neither the positive pagan attitudes, nor pagan indifference, toward Jews, nor the qualitative differences between pagan and early Catholic antisemitism. Of the approximately twenty-five percent of pagan writers who disliked the Jews, almost all of them felt Jews were an annoying people who ate differently, wasted time on the Sabbath, believed in a ridiculous invisible God, and so forth.  But the earliest and strongest Catholic charge against the Jews was “Christ-killer” and the charge exploded beyond Jesus of Nazareth’s generation of Jews when Catholics cited holy writ: “Let his blood be on our heads and the heads of our children.” (Matthew 27)
Other authors argue that Christianity taught contempt of Jews only during the medieval period and that modern antisemitism is essentially secular. Such writers find no definite connecting link or continuity between Christian antisemitism and Nazism.
Still other scholars dismiss the continuing power of Catholic antisemitism; instead, they believe modern antisemitism originated in the “secular” Enlightenment period.  Robert Wistrich argued that if modern Catholics were antisemitic, then Jews would never have been granted any civil rights or other freedoms in modern Christian society. Wistrich assumed that Christian antisemitism was unambiguous and could not be hidden, disguised, or modified, and he ignored the fact that, based on St. Augustine’s Witness-People dictum, many Catholic antisemites treated Jews like Cain, degraded them but did not set out to kill them all. Wistrich also observed that Hitler’s “either-or” policy of destruction of the Jews did not reflect the essential beliefs of Catholic orthodoxy but followed instead the path of Catholic heresy.  But Catholic anti-Jewishness has been the predominant position on the Jews, as this book will show, not the product of heterodoxy. Michael Marrus believes that the causes of the Holocaust have no roots earlier than the nineteenth century. In discussing Uriel Tal’s analysis of nineteenth-century antisemitism, for example, Marrus misses Tal’s point that even when racist antisemitism is theoretically anti-Catholic, it involves crucial elements of Catholic beliefs and of Catholic culture. Marrus mentions Peter Pulzer’s analysis of Austrian antisemitism at the turn of the century but omits Pulzer’s recent appreciation of the continuing importance of religious factors in modern antisemitism. Pulzer’s point is similar to that of Tal’s: “I am more strongly convinced than I was when I wrote the book that a tradition of religiously-inspired Jew hatred . . . was a necessary condition for the success of antisemitic propaganda, even when expressed in non-religious terms and absorbed by those no longer religiously observant.”  Marrus writes as though the Nazis were the first to demonize the Jews and ignores the crucial importance of Christian antisemitism in their mentality. St. Augustine, for example, called all Jews Cains, St. Jerome saw all Jews as Judases, St. John Chrysostom regarded all Jews as useless animals fit for slaughter. Catholic ideas such as these are not the kind that exist in a detached Platonic realm, but idées forces—ideas with emotional punch affecting the real world.  “Ideas, endlessly repeated, furnished justification for the vilest acts.”
James Parkes, John Gager, Robert Willis, and Alan Davies have all made provocative statements concerning the enduring negative effects of Catholic-Christian theology. Robert Willis concluded that “There are obviously, political, social, and economic factors that must be taken into account in assessing the causes of the Holocaust. What is at stake is a proper understanding of the contribution of theological antisemitism to the creation of a social and moral climate that allowed the ‘final solution’ to become a reality. . . . It is necessary . . . to appreciate the cumulative impact of a centuries-long tradition of hostility towards Judaism and Jews within the church as a crucial condition enabling [Hitler’s] mobilization [of public opinion] to take place.”

Just as the Catholic attitude toward the Jews was bipolar, so Catholic antisemitism was not without exception. Indeed, had the Church attempted to eradicate all the Jews, as it did the heretics, Jews would have disappeared by the fourth or fifth century, when Catholicism came to dominate the Roman Empire, or certainly by the High Middle Ages, when at times the Church’s influence was almost totalitarian. Let us briefly examine the contradictory attitudes and actions of St. Bernard of Clairvaux (d.1153) –certainly the greatest spiritual figure, and perhaps the greatest historical figure, of the twelfth century. He was the Church’s most respected and influential cleric, the leading figure of the Latin Church, its greatest writer and preacher, a reformer of the powerful and prestigious Benedictine order, confidant of Pope Innocent II, and teacher of Pope Eugenius III. Like the popes, Bernard believed that religion should control every aspect of society. He was one of the founders of the Cistercian monastic order, encouraged the cult of Mary, and contributed to popular piety. We shall see in chapters 4, 5, and 6 that Bernard wrote against the Jews as deicides, slaves, and racially evil. But the case at hand is his relationship to the French Cistercian monk Rodolphe and the Second Crusade. Rodolphe was believed to perform miracles and attracted enormous crowds; he preached that the Jewish enemies of God must be punished.  His preaching was followed by massacres in Strasbourg, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, Speyer, Würzburg, and in other French and German cities  to the Crusader cry of HEP, HEP (Hierosolyma est perdita, Jerusalem Is Lost).  His demagogy was finally terminated by St. Bernard, who spoke out against the murder of Jews in England, France, and Germany. Bernard warned the English people that “the Jews are not to be persecuted, killed, or even put to flight.”  An adherent of St. Augustine’s precept about the Jews as the Witness People, Bernard traveled to Germany in late 1146 both to preach Crusade and to hush Rodolphe, “It is good that you go off to fight the Ishmaelites [Turks]. But whoever touches a Jew to take his life is like one who had touched the apple of the eye of Jesus; for [Jews] are his flesh and bone. My disciple Rodolphe has spoken in error–for it is said in Psalms [59:11], ‘Slay them not, lest my people forget.'”  The psalm continues, “My God will let me look in triumph on my enemies. Do not kill them, or my people may forget; make them totter by your power, and bring them down, O Lord . . . consume them in wrath, consume them until they are no more.” [Psalm 59:11-13]–words themselves quoted earlier by St. Augustine.
Yet Bernard’s motives were not clearly mercy, charity, or human decency. He told the Archbishop of Mainz that Rodolphe’s murderous preaching against the Jews was the least of his three offenses, namely, “unauthorized preaching, contempt for episcopal authority, and incitation to murder.”  Again following St. Augustine, Bernard held that “the Jews ought not to die in consequence of the immensity of their crimes, but rather to suffer the Diaspora.”  Bernard recalled to his English audience that Jews must “remind us always of what our Lord suffered.” Bernard also noted that at the Second Coming of Christ Jews already dead would remain in hell.  Likewise, he called the Jews hard-hearted and regarded the synagogue as a “cruel mother” who had crowned Jesus with thorns.  He used the servile condition of the Jews (“no slavery is as demeaning as that of the Jews” ), along with their lack of kingdom, priesthood, prophets, and temple, to demonstrate that the Jews were being punished for history’s greatest sin, the crucifixion of Christ. For Bernard, the Jews were venomous vipers whose bestial stupidity and blindness caused them to “lay impious hands upon the Lord of Glory.”  Bernard also wrote that a Christian who neglected Christ’s sufferings was “a sharer in the unparalleled sin of the Jews.”  He commended the Abbot Warren of the Alps for attacking the indiscipline of churlish monks as “destroying those synagogues of Satan”–a phrase from Revelation. Following St. John Chrysostom, Bernard condemned the Jews as ever ungrateful to God and as always resisting the holy spirit, calling them the minions of Satan. He preached that “The Jews, ever mindful of the hatred wherewith they hate his Father, take this opportunity to vent it on the Son . . . these wicked men . . ..” and that “Judaea hates the Light.”
The intimate connection between Judaism and Catholicism has motivated authentic Catholics–those who follow theologia crucis  within Catholic thought–to treat Jews decently, and in every generation they have genuinely respected Jews. The Roman Catholic Church’s historical prohibitions against Catholic-Jewish fraternization presumed the existence of social relationships between Catholics and Jews. Catholic theologians continually complained about the faithful who grew too close to Jews or treated them as human beings rather than as theological types. In every era, some Catholics steadfastly taught their children to respect other human beings, Jews included. “For most rescuers [of Jews during the Holocaust,] helping Jews was an expression of ethical principles that extended to all of humanity . . ..”
Even though the Church has often sought to preserve Jews–at least a remnent thereof–and Judaism as historic forebears of Christianity,  most Catholic writers, thinkers, theologians, politicians, and prelates have expressed a profound hostility toward Jews, and their attitudes have incontestably influenced average Catholics. In the earliest centuries of the Christian era, a relatively bland pre-existing pagan antagonism toward Jews was replaced by historical and theological beliefs that the Jewish people were abhorrent and that any injustice done to them, short of murder, was justified. Jews became the archetypal evil-doers in Catholic societies. This anti-Jewish attitude was a permanent element in the fundamental identity of western Christian civilization–and, for the purposes of this book, in the national identities of countries with large Catholic populations like Poland, Austria, and France. Catholics who took this antagonistic position toward Jews adhered to triumphalism, or theologia gloriae.
The Churches’ predominant, normative theological position in regard to the Jews has been called theologia gloriae—according to James Parkes, an “inbred religious paranoia [that] has been a perversion of everything Jesus meant.”  This antisemitic theology of glory, this dark side of the Church, generally holds that: 1. The Christian Church, the new Israel—”ordained and sanctioned by God himself”—has triumphantly succeeded the cursed and rejected old Israel morally, historically, and metaphysically.  2. Jews denied the true Messiah, the Christ, and murdered him, for which all Jews were forever collectively guilty. 3. The Jews were paradigmatic evil-doers even before their atrocious act of deicide  4. Jews were not to be totally exterminated since they adhered to the Law and gave Christianity the history that it needed to legitimize itself.
Moral perception and behavior are shaped by the society into which we have been social-ized and even more by the community we acknowledge as our own. What the Church thought about Christ and itself as an institution determined what most Catholics believed about Judaism and Jews. Anti-Jewish theological defamations, communicated and empowered by the Church, justified most Catholics in their antisemitic ideas. Moreover, this anti-Jewish repugnance has not been restricted to the realm of ideas; like any ideology, it has boiled over into contemp-tuous feelings and behaviors. Tragically, to love Christ for many if not most Catholics came to mean hatred of his alleged murderers. How could Catholics have ever learned to love the Jewish people, asked Pierre Pierrard, when favorable religious ideas about Jews “were lost in the blood of Calvary. ‘The History of the Church’ made [Jews] appear only as an antithesis of the glorious epic of the Roman Church.”
Until 1965 and beyond, the most significant ideology about Jews within the Church, the theology of glory, has encouraged Catholics to view Judaism as little more than the work of Satan and the Antichrist, and to regard Jews with sacred horror. This anti-Jewish theology has been so pervasive that even decent Christians have sometimes uttered the most “factually untrue and grossly libelous” statements about Jews.  Moreover, these negative perceptions have existed independent of what Jews themselves have actually done, or, indeed, of a Jewish presence at all. In their ideological assault on the Jews, the Fathers of the Church, for example, never cited the misdeeds of their contemporary Jewish neighbors. It was mythical Jewish actions—their alleged deicide and later medieval defamations—that stood as the basis of resentful Catholic misperceptions.  God was always pictured as “in there punching” on the side of Catholicism  and Catholics against Jews and Judaism.
These religious antagonisms, elaborated by the theological and popular writings and preachings of the Church’s great theologians and popes, exploited by Catholic authorities, enhanced by the liturgy, art, and literature of the Church, created in most of the faithful an automatic hostility toward Jewishness. This diabolizing of the Jews has continued into the modern period with only minor deviations.
Just as Catholic theology denied Jews salvation in the next life, so it disqualified Jews from legitimate citizenship in Christendom. In a sense, Jews were ostracized from full human status. Some protective Roman legal traditions, some Catholic feelings of charity, and the Jews’ ambivalent role as suffering examples of the consequences of offending God provided Jews with a precarious place within Catholic society. But until their emancipation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—and to this day, for some—Jews had only a very tenuous legal and moral right to exist, let alone act as citizens. The Jews had to plead with Catholic authorities—kings and princes, bishops and dictators, popes and presidents—to protect them. Sometimes this worked. Other times the authorities turned their backs on the Jews or collaborated with those Catholics who were intent on cursing, expropriating, expelling, or murdering them.
Despite the close theological relationship between Judaism and Catholicism, despite Jesus’ commandment about love of neighbor, despite the modern Roman Catholic Church’s insistence on “justice and charity” in the treatment of Jews, despite the Church’s emphasis on caritas (love within families that extended outward toward neighborhood, city, and nation) and agape (the self-sacrificial love taught by Jesus on the cross that extended to love of enemies), most Catholics found it impossible to love Jews. When Catholicism was a new religion and had to fight for its own individual identity, churchmen and theologians found it necessary to distance themselves from Jews. Furthermore, humane behavior toward Jews required Catholics to follow the difficult moral precepts of Jesus as expressed in the Gospels. Although the Church professed the same moral precepts, it usually followed anti-Jewish policies. Some Catholic writers called on the faithful to love Jews but only as a first step toward converting them, that is, this kind of love was meant to precede the elimination of Jews as Jews.

The Dark Side of the Church will summarize and analyze the history of Catholic antisemitism, a set of beliefs creating a climate of opinion that led to untold suffering and millions of Jewish deaths before the Holocaust,  and not only made the Holocaust possible, but likely. What does it take for a nation’s workers, middle class, aristocracy, artists, and intellectuals in a few years to collaborate in the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of its Jewish neighbors and fellow citizens, and millions of Jewish coreligionists outside the national borders? As historian Walter Zwi Bacharach wrote, “no human being gets up one fine morning and sets out to kill Jews, just because he is ordered to do so.”  This comment was mirrored decades later by James O’Gara, editor of the Catholic Commonweal: “Could the Nazi horror have sprung full-blown out of nowhere, without centuries of [Christian] antisemitism to nourish it and give it strength.”  It takes centuries of preparation, tradition, and religion to enable people to see others as inhuman monsters and act on this perception. Gordon Allport points out that Christianity stands as the focus of prejudice because “it is the pivot of the cultural tradition.”  Catholic theological and Catholic racist antisemitism  prepared, conditioned, and encouraged Catholic antisemites, and others,  to collaborate actively and/or passively with individual and institutional antisemitic behaviors–avoidance, antilocution, discrimination, expropriation, physical assault and torture, murder, and mass murder.  This Catholic antisemitism paved the long via dolorosa that led to Auschwitz and beyond.

Catholic antisemitism has been exported to the Middle East where Christian Arabs were the conduit for entry, so that traditional antisemitism has been grafted on to pre-existing Muslim Jew-hatred and portends a grave danger for Jews in the future. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (translated into Arabic by a Lebanese Christian) in the early 1920s), Hitler’s Mein Kampf, and Ford’s International Jew are readily available all over the Muslim world. Mel Gibson’s antisemitic film, The Passion of the Christ, gained instant popularity in the Middle East.  Neither Arab immigrants to Europe nor reactions to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict explains “the resurgence of European antisemitism after the Holocaust.” On the contrary, explains Manfred Gerstenstein, the facts suggest that continuing antisemitism “is integral to European [Christian] culture.” Leftists, Rightists, and in between express hatred of Jews. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, most European nations are exhibiting significant levels of antisemitism. The doublethinking European Union attacks Israel and at the same time seems to oppose traditional antisemitism.  (In 2005, the European Union Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia established a “Working Definition of Antisemitism.” )
Unanswerable questions remain. Can the Churches truly eliminate the anti-Jewish elements in their teachings? Can the Church admit to the mythic nature of the Gospel stories, which may contain some fact but more fully convey the authors’ (anti-Jewish) perspectives and the Church’s (anti-Jewish) interpretations–especially the Crucifixion story, which fixes on the Jews eternal responsibility and collective guilt for the murder of God?  A final question is whether the Catholic Church can give up its anti-Jewish position and remain as an intact institution.

http://www.academici.com/blog.aspx?bid=4222

“Michael’s work is path-breaking, in that few before him have tackled both the historical and theological foundations of Catholic antisemitism and, at the same time, traced its path from biblical times all the way through to Auschwitz. In this, Michael is brave; but, as this outstanding work shows, his bravery is vindicated. His treatment of such topics as the Church’s age-old and ongoing dehumanization of the Jews, coupled with its failure to confront that supreme manifestation of evil that became manifest in the Nazis, is an important contribution to an already massive literature on antisemitism and the Holocaust.”
–Paul R. Bartrop, Head, Department of History, Bialik College, Melbourne, Australia

From Booklist: Review of Dictionary of Antisemitism
Anti-Semitism has been called the longest hatred. Unfortunately, hatred of Jews and Judaism has a very long, disturbing, and frequently murderous history. Containing more than 2,500 entries, this dictionary covers a wide range of political, economic, racial, religious, and historical manifestations of anti-Jewish prejudice. The entries cover individuals (ranging from the Nazi leaders to Ezra Pound and David Duke), historical incidents (the Chmielnicki massacres and the Dreyfus case), and infamous anti-Jewish publications and publishers (The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Noontide Press), among many other topics. The bibliographic references even for entries of two or three sentences are an outstanding feature, listing both print and Web sources (many of the Web citations are for a single Wikipedia entry on ethnic slurs). The work of more than 200 scholars, Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (ABC-CLIO, 2005) has 612 entries, most of which are longer than those found in Dictionary of Antisemitism. The wide range of entries, a useful introduction, and numerous citations make the latter an essential ready-reference source that is recommended for public and academic libraries. Altschiller, Donald

Portrait of Robert Michael by Carolyn R. Michael

Jewdysseos&TexasJewboyKinky Friedman.jpg hosted for free by ImageShack
Kinky Friedman and Robert Michael, Austin TX 2007

Jewdysseos&deuce-and-a-half.jpg hosted for free by ImageShack
Robert Michael, Bitburg, Germany
Robert Michael  Murfreesboro TN  2008
Robert Michael, Murfreesboro TN 2009
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

AHA 1997: New York City “The Past and Future of the Internet” by Robert Michael — H-Net Wins Robinson

http://www.h-net.org/aha/history.html

The American Historical Association and H-Net

H-Net: Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine has a strong history of participating

in the American Historical Association’s annual meetings.

Here you can find an online archive of sessions, papers, participants

and activities that H-Net has been affiliated with in past years at the AHA.

AHA 1997: New York City

Sessions
Papers

H-Net wins Robinson!

H-Net Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine
Humanities &
Social Sciences Online
Hosted by Matrix
H-Net at the AHA

H-Net at AHA ’97

THE PAST AND FUTURE OF THE INTERNET
by
Robert Michael
Professor of European History
UMASS Dartmouth
co-editor H-ANTIS, H-W-CIV, H-HOLOCAUST
Friday, Jan. 3, 9:30-11:30, Hilton, Morgan Suite

A note of warning: Having written this paper on the Internet a few weeks ago, much of it is hopelessly out of date.

        A brief chronology of events leading to today's Internet:
        In the beginning was the Word, wrote John in his Gospel.

He must have been a historian, because he could have started with the first grunt, slap, or wall painting. Then there were scribes copying words into manuscripts. A few thousand years later, printed books arrived. In the 18th century, Leibnitz invented a calculating machine that heralded the computer. A century later there came the cable, making possible the telegraph and telephone. 100 years later came computers linked to each other by cable to make the Internet a reality.

In 1945, one of America’s foremost physicists, MIT’s Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development coordinating the activities of American scientists in the application of science to warfare, noted that the human mind associates thoughts “in accordance with some intricate web of trails [links].” Whereas the human brain’s “speed and flexibility” will probably never be equalled by a machine, machines can “beat the mind decisively in regard to the permanence and clarity of the items resurrected from storage.” Information could in future be transmitted post-electronically to and from the human brain, thereby allowing us to forget what we don’t need and focus instead on the knowledge we require to live good lives. Observing that “man’s spirit should be elevated if he can better review his shady past and analyze more completely and objectively his present problems,” Bush sought to reshape the relationship between science and human society. Instead of science being used for war, scientific advances could lead the way in helping human beings gain knowledge to the end of gaining wisdom in order to satisfy their “needs and desires” without destroying themselves. Of course, all governments ignored these reflections.

In 1957, the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was established after the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik to allow computer scientists and engineers working on military contracts all over America to share expensive computers and other resources. As an afterthought a few researchers found a way to send messages–later called E-mail.

In 1960, Theodor Holm Nelson, a vastly creative Swarthmore graduate, wrote: “It occurs to me that the future of humanity is at the interactive computer screen, that the new writing and movies will be interactive and interlinked.”

In 1965, working on digital media designs that transcended the “prevailing paradigms,” Nelson coined the words hypertext and hypermedia–systems that allows users to mouse-click their way from words or pictures in one document to those in another–and he foresaw a “docuverse” or universal library of multimedia documents.

My first experience with the Internet occurred in 1984, when an Internet journal called Troisieme Republique published my long article on the French Radical-Socialist Party. I didn’t know what the Internet was.

On 12 November 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a computer pro working at CERN (Conseil Europeean pour la Recherche Nucleaire, located near Geneva on the French-Swiss border), suggested a method of streamlining record-keeping at CERN: He proposed to catalog CERN’s structure electronically. “A ‘web’ of notes with links (like references) between them.” Berners-Lee launched the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and Hypertext markup language (HTML) used on Web pages linking Web sites.

As of November 1996, there were 50 million Internet users world-wide with Americans making up 75 percent of the world’s Web users. 60 percent of American users are either in education or computers. Most of the exploitation of the Internet has occurred in the English-speaking nations, where telecommunications in general and the Internet in particular are deregulated. Last summer while traveling in Eastern and Central Europe, I found many academics there driven to learn about and use the Web–the advantage going to those who knew English and whose nations had begun to deregulate telecommunications. I taught computer professionals and faculty from the former Soviet Union who came to Central European University at Budapest so they could exploit the Web. Because of state monopolies on telecommunications in Hungary and Germany, we were told that it costs the Hungarians nearly a $100 per hour to go on line.

WHY HISTORIANS AND THE INTERNET

An interesting question is why historians have been so far out front in using the Internet. Wouldn’t we all like to think that the explanation is that historians are a progressive, creative, and far-seeing lot and that they were among the first to understand that the Internet could truly revolutionize the teaching and understanding of history? But I doubt this. Perhaps it’s just that we deal with facts, whatever and wherever they are, and computers and the internet are ways of organizing these facts. Besides, lots of historians are interested in graphics, in show as well as tell. Here the Internet provides a rich mine of resources for them.

I think though that there are three main possibilities for historians’ leading position.

First, diving into this new electronic medium of the Internet is a break from the same old stuff that we sometimes dry-as-dust historians have to deal with. As Peter Shoemaker has said of early medieval historians like himself, “You wake up to another day of research, pour coffee, read the Times to see if any more evidence has turned up, realize that for another day you will have to massage the same old facts, take a shower, turn on the computer, convert notes to [hypertext markup language], find a place to put them [on the Web], eat lunch, see how many different ways you can now access your notes, eat dinner, go to bed.”

The second possibility lies in the historians traditional position as high priests at the temple of knowledge; practitioners of the one truly comprehensive field covering the written record of human behavior. Why not then continue as the high priests of the Internet, the newest medium recording human endeavor?

The third possibility, in regard to scholarly email lists, is that historians are used to flocking together into organizations such as the AHA, NCHE (National Council for History Education), CLS (Council of Learned Societies), OAH (Organization of American Historians) to present, compare, and criticize each other’s ideas and for the pure fellowship of it all. Thus, for example, the establishment of nearly 80 scholarly email lists as H-NET, the humanities network, founded by Richard Jensen of the University of Illinois Chicago, edited by more than 140 academics, such as myself and the others on today’s panel, and serving nearly 40,000 scholars in 61 countries. As to the Web, historians love to browse electronically perhaps because they have generally felt comfortable browsing through libraries’ open stack collections, where books are collected together on the same subject. Historians, and we are not of course the only scholars who do this, have to organize their research material and present it–to students and to colleagues–and so the establishment of history web sites is a natural consequence.

THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET

The impact of the Internet, that is, the computer and its email and World Wide Web functions, have changed teaching, research, and collegiality. The Internet expands our horizons, our imaginations, and our capacities to find, store, organize, use, teach, and publish information.

In the Fall semester 1995, I may have been the first professor to teach an electronic course on the Holocaust, using the Web and email. This class was featured in a U.S. News and World Report story. The students were mostly local, but also from North Carolina and Italy. Locations where the Holocaust would rarely be taught, I think. The lectures were already on disk and were made available at the UMASS Dartmouth Website to those with the correct password. We used email and the Web to ask and answer interpetive questions. My class was put into contact with Holocaust Websites for graphics and documents. They could read what Holocaust deniers had to say, and we could discuss the material and the students could even reply to the deniers via the Internet. The students also communicated with Holocaust Survivors and children of Survivors in Australia, the United States, and Israel.

During the regular semester, students contact me to submit papers or to ask questions and obtain advice during my “electronic” office hours, which run 24-hours a day, 365 days-a-year. Yet I spend a relatively short time actually answering questions whenever and wherever I want. When I gave a seminar on History and the Internet at the University of Vienna last summer, this was the use of email that most impressed the Vienna faculty.

Email provides fast, almost instantaneous, communication with libraries, archives, and colleagues all across the globe, and with administrators at one’s own university or elsewhere. I contact colleagues, librarians, administrators on all kinds of issues. I have exchanged email posts with the chancellor of my university, something I would have been unlikely to have done viva voce or by snail mail. The issue at hand was an important one. I tried to convince him that the humanities can employ the new technologies as well as any of the sciences. That is, that the use of the computer and, by extension, the Internet is as important to History as it is to Biology or Physics. What lay behind this argument was the continuous drift of technology and the funds away from the humanities and toward other departments. I wish I could say that I was successful.

At last June’s UMASS Dartmouth commencement, the Nobel Lauriat Elie Wiesel was invited to be the main speaker and to receive an honorary degree. Since I have been teaching and publishing on the Holocaust, I naturally wanted to meet him. After an exchange of email posts with the dean, who was chauffeuring Wiesel through the day and its ceremonies, my wife and I were invited to meet Wiesel. The chance of a lifetime made more likely through email.

Besides one-on-one email communication, there are public email networks or lists. Recently, 8,786 such lists were counted. Thousands of members of these groups with common interests communicate among themselves electronically. By joining some of these groups, we can correspond simultaneously with hundreds of fellow professors. I belong to more than a dozen lists, from the Holocaust to classical Greek philosophy (SOPHIA), from antisemitism to the History of Western Civilization. These lists not only allow us to share our interests but also to gain a a wealth of information. We can get questions answered. For example, years ago I was listening to the McLaughlin Group on PBS, and McLaughlin mentioned a phrase that sounded to me like “hypox legomena.” Unable to find the phrase in my dictionary, I contacted the Sophia list. Within a day I had collected 26 replies to my question from colleagues all over the world who delighted in informing another professor. I was told that the correct phrase was “hapax legomena,” which means a one-time-only usage of a term or phrase in a body of work. These Email networks can also help us in the early stages of a research project by supplying specific or theoretical information; suggesting bibliographies for material we are seeking in libraries or at Internet sites. And of course once our ideas are full-blown and our research done, we can use these email lists to gather informed criticism from our colleagues.

Last summer my wife and I planned a trip to Eastern Europe, including Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Prague. I sent email posts to four or five networks to which I belong and received dozens of helpful suggestions and made contacts in all of the cities we traveled to. We received hundreds of bits of information, advice, photos, maps, names and addresses.

THE WORLD WIDE WEB

At 7:36 p.m., eastern daylight savings time, 14 November 1996, there were 68,173,788 indexed Web pages residing on the Lycos search engine.

The World Wide Web is the other crucially important computer aid for faculty. The Web enables us to search and find most kinds of information within a few seconds. Color graphics, moving pictures, and sounds as well as texts are available through the Web. The information available is nearly unlimited in breadth. Indeed, it is “breadth-taking” how many topics are covered on the Web. One sticking point, however, is the lack of depth in the available material. If the present trends continue, more and more material increasing vertical as well has horizontal knowledge will be stored on the Web. Several Websites have been adding texts to their pages. I could mention the University of Virginia French texts, the Dartmouth College Dante collection, and I have heard that the Library of Congress is proceeding with its attempt to put the content of all of its holdings on line. The Internet Public Library is a virtual library containing the full text of 3,400 books online–not many, but it’s a start. Each entry is accompanied by bibliographic information, including title, author, date, Dewey Classification(s), and hypertext URL(s). The downsides are the limited number of books, the huge memory demands on your browser, and the antiquity of the translations and editions.

SEARCH ENGINES:

Sam Johnson has said that “Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it.”

There are dozens of search engines that help us discover on the Internet material for our students, for our research, and for everyday living. It takes some time to develop the skills necessary to use search engines efficiently, but our efforts are well worth the work.

Each week, the Department of Computer Sciences at the University of Wisconsin, publishes the Scout Report (http://www.cs.wisc.edu/scout/report/ and http://www.cs.wisc.edu/scout/report/pdf/), emailing its subscribers a selection of new and newly discovered Internet resources of interest to researchers and educators. The 13 Dec. 96 issue, for example, covered Web resources in Research and Education, General Interest, and Network Tools. The Tulip Book of P. Cos, 1637, was the 7th item in the research and education category. Its Web location was indicated (http://www.bib.wau.nl/tulips/) and this is how it was described: “Those with an interest in the historical side of commercial horticulture will enjoy the efforts of the Wageningen Agricultural University Library (Netherlands) in bringing a facsimile of a 1637 manuscript tulip book to the web. Published by nurseryman P. Cos of Haarlem, the 75-page book contains 54 gouaches of tulips, followed by 14 additional drawings and 7 watercolors of carnations added at a later date. In comparison with other tulip books, this one is special because not only their names are mentioned, but also their weight and the price for which each bulb was sold. Each page of the book occupies its own web page, and the image files average 30KB. [Like so much on the Net] the site’s content and navigation system are presented in English.”

The 9th item is called 10 Downing (www.number10.gov.uk/to/index.html),
a Web site opened recently by the British Prime Minister’s Office. “Although it does contain selected Prime Minister’s speeches, transcripts, and interviews, Prime Minister’s biographies (back to Harold Macmillan at present), and a tour of #10, its greatest utility is as an entry point to British executive department government sites. The Cabinet Ministers’ Biography section contains information on 23 ministers and links to cabinet web sites. There is also a page of government department pointers.”

The Scout report also describes a new search engine called InterNIC WebFinder (http://ds.internic.net/ds/webfinder/WebFinder.html), which “finds web pages associated with organizations.” Rather than search the text of pages, titles, or URLs of web pages with spider technology, “WebFinder ssearches a database of organizations, recovering all the web pages associated with the organization.

The Internet Future:

There is good news. Recently, 35 leading American research universities and the Federal government have contributed $300 million to establish a new Internet for research, one that is much faster than the present networks and will be able to transmit large amounts of data. According to the project director, Michael Roberts, the new system “will focus energy and resources on the development of a new family of advanced applications to meet emerging academic requirements in research, teaching, and learning.”

In response to growing academic criticism of the Internet, much of it well-deserved, University of Pennsylvania Classics Professor James J. O’Donnell–with whom I took electronic course on St. Augustine a few years ago–has reported that scholars in the fifteenth and sixteenth century criticized the print medium. These critics argued that “the unleashing of the power of distributing the written word would give rise to unorthodox and heretical opinions” and, O’Donnell notes, they were right. Yet face-to-face communication–that precious and intimate form of communication–did not cease after the invention of the printing press; it was enriched. Indeed, where would we be without our mostly printed sources for our lectures?

Abuses, misinformation, plagiarism, skulduggery, junk, pornography, and scams abound on the Internet. We need to teach our students to verify the information gained from the Internet just as we teach them to verify the information obtained from documents and print sources. We have to find ways to prevent unwanted material from entering our computers. We have to insure that our academic freedom to teach, to do research, and to communicate freely with our colleagues all across the globe is not impeded. We have to make sure that the international collegiality made possible by the internet does not destroy the sometimes fragile but necessary collegial relationships with members of our own departments and university.

Conclusion:

The Internet may be rather disturbing to many of us used to the traditional methods of communication and research. Everything seems too fast and, in a sense, too facile. I fully believe, however, that we have to come to grips with this new technology and, as scholars alive and well in the twentieth, soon to be twenty-first, century, turn it to our advantage. Although many academics refuse to use the Internet for their work, and this of course is their prerogative, it seems to me that rejecting the Internet for our scholarship is like a 16th-century scholar refusing to use printed material. We simply have to realize that the Internet is here to stay, and we can use this new medium to our own advantage. So long as the focus remains for us–as well as for our administrations and for our students–teaching face to face. The new technologies can be used to enhance our teaching, make it more creative, impressive, and easy, and can be used to make our research more efficient and complete, but, in my view, it can never replace the face-to-face contact between professor and students, that is, the traditional university teaching environment. A place where many people, hopefully, believe in cognoscendi causa, learning for learning’s sake. Where teachers help lead both themselves and their students toward wisdom.

As the new technologies become more important, we can still teach our students to be critical and humanistic. But we will fail them and ourselves unless we take pro-active measures to harness the Internet. We have to demonstrate to our students that we can help them order the chaos of facts now available on the Internet into understandable constructions. We can either continue to be leaders in using these new technological tools, or we will very likely end up being buried by them.

H-Net Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment